Commit 09bf48d5 authored by Yonghwi Kwon's avatar Yonghwi Kwon
Browse files

shepherding ver

parent 0c02d34e
......@@ -43,6 +43,7 @@
citecolor={blue!50!black},
urlcolor={blue!80!black}
}
\usepackage[normalem]{ulem}
\setlength{\abovecaptionskip}{0.5em}
......@@ -72,8 +73,9 @@
\newcommand{\itbf}[1]{\textit{\textbf{#1}}}
\usepackage{soul}
\newcommand{\corr}[2] {\sout{#1} \hl{#2}}
\newcommand{\corr}[2]{{\color{blue}\sout{#1}}{\color{red}{#2}}}
\newcommand{\dgcell}{\cellcolor{gray!40}}
\newcommand{\gcell}{\cellcolor{gray!25}}
......@@ -94,7 +96,7 @@
\newcommand{\sysname}{\textsc{MalMax}\xspace}
\newcommand{\toolname}{\textsc{PhpMalScan}\xspace}
\newenvironment{newtext}{\color{red}}{\ignorespacesafterend}
\newenvironment{newtext}{\color{black}}{\ignorespacesafterend}
\newcommand{\numberlist}[2][0.85\linewidth]{%
[\parbox[t]{#1}{\printcommalist{#2}}%
......
# Fdb version 3
["bibtex malmax_ccs19"] 1568870830 "malmax_ccs19.aux" "malmax_ccs19.bbl" "malmax_ccs19" 1568870835
["bibtex malmax_ccs19"] 1568936522 "malmax_ccs19.aux" "malmax_ccs19.bbl" "malmax_ccs19" 1568936529
"./ACM-Reference-Format.bst" 1566271039 97471 94d2174e63fb9cd866ec1d0b392ce46c ""
"bibliography.bib" 1567474368 25775 fff1bcf328743a25b80cc041e95b16c5 ""
"malmax_ccs19.aux" 1568870833 24485 84134aacb10e6d99475c2a7e8fd04c59 "pdflatex"
"malmax_ccs19.aux" 1568936527 24487 7cdc753a9ba9f78d838a692300760d9b "pdflatex"
(generated)
"malmax_ccs19.blg"
"malmax_ccs19.bbl"
["pdflatex"] 1568870831 "c:/Users/yongh/papers/conference_usenix2019_emulware/malmax_ccs19.tex" "c:/Users/yongh/papers/conference_usenix2019_emulware/malmax_ccs19.pdf" "malmax_ccs19" 1568870835
"malmax_ccs19.blg"
["pdflatex"] 1568936523 "c:/Users/yongh/papers/conference_usenix2019_emulware/malmax_ccs19.tex" "c:/Users/yongh/papers/conference_usenix2019_emulware/malmax_ccs19.pdf" "malmax_ccs19" 1568936529
"acmart.cls" 1568852401 98295 60bdbb4df88695512eeb70719af5d637 ""
"c:/Users/yongh/papers/conference_usenix2019_emulware/malmax_ccs19.aux" 1568870833 24485 84134aacb10e6d99475c2a7e8fd04c59 ""
"c:/Users/yongh/papers/conference_usenix2019_emulware/malmax_ccs19.aux" 1568936527 24487 7cdc753a9ba9f78d838a692300760d9b ""
"c:/Users/yongh/papers/conference_usenix2019_emulware/malmax_ccs19.tex" 1568869943 3049 774d07cc9e79b5819841701b9be587fc ""
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/fonts/enc/dvips/base/8r.enc" 1562897100 4850 80dc9bab7f31fb78a000ccfed0e27cab ""
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/fonts/enc/dvips/libertine/lbtn_25tcsq.enc" 1562899492 2921 8ca0eb0831f9bc5da080d3697cfe67bf ""
......@@ -27,6 +27,7 @@
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/fonts/tfm/adobe/symbol/psyr.tfm" 1562903474 1408 5937f58aa508ea2cea4901c07d10f5fe ""
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/fonts/tfm/adobe/zapfding/pzdr.tfm" 1562905468 1528 7e12f4c0fcf5a072cebdcfbfc610f54c ""
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/fonts/tfm/jknappen/ec/ecrm0900.tfm" 1562897174 3584 d3d8ac8b25ca19c0a40b86a5db1e8ccc ""
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/fonts/tfm/jknappen/ec/ectt1000.tfm" 1562897175 1536 06717a2b50de47d4087ac0e6cd759455 ""
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/fonts/tfm/public/amsfonts/symbols/msam10.tfm" 1562890776 916 f87d7c45f9c908e672703b83b72241a3 ""
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/fonts/tfm/public/amsfonts/symbols/msam5.tfm" 1562890776 924 9904cf1d39e9767e7a3622f2a125a565 ""
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/fonts/tfm/public/amsfonts/symbols/msam7.tfm" 1562890776 928 2dc8d444221b7a635bb58038579b861a ""
......@@ -34,6 +35,7 @@
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/fonts/tfm/public/amsfonts/symbols/msbm5.tfm" 1562890776 940 75ac932a52f80982a9f8ea75d03a34cf ""
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/fonts/tfm/public/amsfonts/symbols/msbm7.tfm" 1562890776 940 228d6584342e91276bf566bcf9716b83 ""
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/fonts/tfm/public/cm/cmr9.tfm" 1562895962 1292 6b21b9c2c7bebb38aa2273f7ca0fb3af ""
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/fonts/tfm/public/latex-fonts/lasy6.tfm" 1562899254 520 4889cce2180234b97cad636b6039c722 ""
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/fonts/tfm/public/libertine/LinBiolinumT-tlf-sc-t1--base.tfm" 1562899506 1700 a4354bcd9277175b9a626fb764379efc ""
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/fonts/tfm/public/libertine/LinBiolinumT-tlf-sc-t1.tfm" 1562899497 15956 2ed9f9f1e13dd05d72b5446860e558dc ""
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/fonts/tfm/public/libertine/LinBiolinumT-tlf-t1--base.tfm" 1562899501 1744 9486ddc64e90094bbb83f53a83b0e415 ""
......@@ -190,6 +192,7 @@
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/generic/pgf/utilities/pgfutil-common-lists.tex" 1562901474 7250 03b2b9fb5fa38e7ca5cc3c45860fb210 ""
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/generic/pgf/utilities/pgfutil-common.tex" 1562901474 27570 36e8508c361cb975ec85ff584423eb60 ""
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/generic/pgf/utilities/pgfutil-latex.def" 1562901474 6286 450166d157e5ab9b7759ea3a7ab18f81 ""
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/generic/ulem/ulem.sty" 1562904662 23756 854c01b779030ff5b2aad88ba7a119f2 ""
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/generic/xkeyval/keyval.tex" 1562905323 2725 fc34ef3ccb37ba15a640e8fca6190bca ""
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/generic/xkeyval/xkeyval.tex" 1562905323 19231 26434a5656c684f5ffb1f26f98006baa ""
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/generic/xkeyval/xkvutils.tex" 1562905323 7677 6f5ce7c1124cad7ec57d05b2562bd8fe ""
......@@ -304,6 +307,7 @@
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/latex/psnfss/upsy.fd" 1562901903 148 2da0acd77cba348f34823f44cabf0058 ""
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/latex/psnfss/upzd.fd" 1562901903 148 b2a94082cb802f90d3daf6dd0c7188a0 ""
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/latex/relsize/relsize.sty" 1562902591 15542 c4cc3164fe24f2f2fbb06eb71b1da4c4 ""
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/latex/soul/soul.sty" 1562903138 23636 c37eef0334dd2011d112d2040c11328f ""
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/latex/textcase/textcase.sty" 1562903943 2022 79a2c3efd954daff1698214872b6ca46 ""
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/latex/tools/array.sty" 1562904365 12527 31ab547f6520657998ecf91709f950ac ""
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/latex/tools/indentfirst.sty" 1562904366 1615 dba466e323af4fcd4a6acb87444d96c3 ""
......@@ -320,7 +324,7 @@
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-var/fonts/map/pdftex/updmap/pdftex.map" 1562905621 4586845 79241a89abc448416d984e4a2051eef7 ""
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf-var/web2c/pdftex/pdflatex.fmt" 1562905938 4261096 fa912fd6eeb436bc17f169e3928c3e2b ""
"c:/texlive/2019/texmf.cnf" 1562942119 675 75f56781acd8186b6724dcc224cc366a ""
"define.tex" 1568869343 3211 e29be77ae5c4230f8a1bcf484190ef82 ""
"define.tex" 1568931179 3283 9e2f8b15f77f413e14b7850ed9648356 ""
"fig/case_malware1.pdf" 1566271039 31050 9c32f553548265870f1ae26757fd767b ""
"fig/case_malware1_scenario.pdf" 1566271039 133433 87ebc986aa13e8d43cb9951e49468970 ""
"fig/case_malware2_code.pdf" 1566271039 26047 93586b1e8ae13a6a1a6b4d906c3baf04 ""
......@@ -333,31 +337,31 @@
"fig/scanned_files.pdf" 1566271039 27844 35daa5de9c15f348b6245184597b76a1 ""
"fig/total_file_category.pdf" 1566271039 11090 3eb57ca7b23a2abd789ac04c12fc3690 ""
"fig/vttypes.pdf" 1566271039 12913 03c627debe93a0b4215d2b3d6d46c546 ""
"malmax_ccs19.aux" 1568870833 24485 84134aacb10e6d99475c2a7e8fd04c59 "pdflatex"
"malmax_ccs19.bbl" 1568870831 40160 6b02e28bb93fdfdc4d133d23b6535dc3 "bibtex malmax_ccs19"
"malmax_ccs19.out" 1568870833 5338 3967bfdebe58e4756ff2a61578cc4e3e "pdflatex"
"malmax_ccs19.aux" 1568936527 24487 7cdc753a9ba9f78d838a692300760d9b "pdflatex"
"malmax_ccs19.bbl" 1568936522 40160 6b02e28bb93fdfdc4d133d23b6535dc3 "bibtex malmax_ccs19"
"malmax_ccs19.out" 1568936527 5338 3967bfdebe58e4756ff2a61578cc4e3e "pdflatex"
"malmax_ccs19.tex" 1568869943 3049 774d07cc9e79b5819841701b9be587fc ""
"sections/abstract.tex" 1567474369 4083 7a8ea70b6e85d5db49261863c9cab635 ""
"sections/appendix-counterfactual.tex" 1567474369 40047 2ea54b32ec7d222fb8a418661092343f ""
"sections/appendix-functions.tex" 1567474369 16971 a1409870c40c4a4859d297b67ba979a1 ""
"sections/appendix.tex" 1568870221 9054 e91b9c66bc29e0241133dc773eff135a ""
"sections/background.tex" 1568870372 11582 d0bc93ab10499007c243d87a741bf5c3 ""
"sections/discussion.tex" 1568870159 9948 8072385e44cbc79b9489a457a669755d ""
"sections/evaluation-sampleanalysis.tex" 1568870041 6873 fde104798ebcc3cf2d2271697c3d0897 ""
"sections/evaluation.tex" 1568870826 30951 39550061153f0b6e91f6cc1d7c562ab0 ""
"sections/discussion.tex" 1568931989 9914 4af5d576db64596f92bdae593136b6f9 ""
"sections/evaluation-sampleanalysis.tex" 1568931843 6891 24f5e472560f727e135d7aae1b85a914 ""
"sections/evaluation.tex" 1568936515 31441 2976a64146323556fab43e56941d38fe ""
"sections/future-work.tex" 1566271039 1793 3f0cd6541049c944d02dbae4083525e3 ""
"sections/introduction.tex" 1568870595 17424 83336dfa7d984ef561f184c4012da071 ""
"sections/method.tex" 1568863137 46349 0b69641a3b2fb6b233d4ea022ed0fb30 ""
"sections/related-work.tex" 1568864010 10218 7ec3221427e9b787c484628d7da2adc7 ""
"sections/summary.tex" 1568852401 2351 a00f2f32c074d6efd4a642c16b4993c5 ""
"sections/summary.tex" 1568932417 2352 efb82c86e158c5faef84b6d74a9cdf44 ""
"table-category.tex" 1567380778 1150 914138172c680826c111b5185b18620e ""
"table-details.tex" 1568852401 16766 e506e6062db1a931e0ede8470ae90589 ""
"table-fp.tex" 1567352047 4063 6906fb82a424f51a06da7637524adaad ""
"table-perf.tex" 1567352168 842 fc9c92e6825eca28e313974d7cac082d ""
(generated)
"malmax_ccs19.log"
"malmax_ccs19.pdf"
"malmax_ccs19.out"
"c:/Users/yongh/papers/conference_usenix2019_emulware/malmax_ccs19.log"
"malmax_ccs19.log"
"malmax_ccs19.aux"
"malmax_ccs19.out"
"c:/Users/yongh/papers/conference_usenix2019_emulware/malmax_ccs19.pdf"
"malmax_ccs19.aux"
......@@ -218,6 +218,9 @@ INPUT c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/latex/multirow/multirow.sty
INPUT c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/latex/multirow/multirow.sty
INPUT c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/latex/makecell/makecell.sty
INPUT c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/latex/makecell/makecell.sty
INPUT c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/generic/ulem/ulem.sty
INPUT c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/generic/ulem/ulem.sty
INPUT c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/fonts/tfm/public/latex-fonts/lasy6.tfm
INPUT c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/latex/pgf/frontendlayer/tikz.sty
INPUT c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/latex/pgf/frontendlayer/tikz.sty
INPUT c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/latex/pgf/basiclayer/pgf.sty
......@@ -307,6 +310,9 @@ INPUT c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/generic/pgf/libraries/pgflibraryplothandler
INPUT c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/generic/pgf/modules/pgfmodulematrix.code.tex
INPUT c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/generic/pgf/frontendlayer/tikz/libraries/tikzlibrarytopaths.code.tex
INPUT c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/generic/pgf/frontendlayer/tikz/libraries/tikzlibrarytopaths.code.tex
INPUT c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/latex/soul/soul.sty
INPUT c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/latex/soul/soul.sty
INPUT c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/fonts/tfm/jknappen/ec/ectt1000.tfm
INPUT c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/latex/preprint/balance.sty
INPUT c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/tex/latex/preprint/balance.sty
INPUT c:/Users/yongh/papers/conference_usenix2019_emulware/malmax_ccs19.aux
......@@ -603,14 +609,14 @@ INPUT c:/Users/yongh/papers/conference_usenix2019_emulware/sections/future-work.
INPUT c:/Users/yongh/papers/conference_usenix2019_emulware/sections/future-work.tex
INPUT c:/Users/yongh/papers/conference_usenix2019_emulware/sections/summary.tex
INPUT c:/Users/yongh/papers/conference_usenix2019_emulware/sections/summary.tex
INPUT c:/Users/yongh/papers/conference_usenix2019_emulware/malmax_ccs19.bbl
INPUT c:/Users/yongh/papers/conference_usenix2019_emulware/malmax_ccs19.bbl
INPUT c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/fonts/vf/public/newtx/nxlmi.vf
INPUT c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/fonts/tfm/public/newtx/rfxlri-alt.tfm
INPUT c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/fonts/tfm/public/txfonts/txmi.tfm
INPUT c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/fonts/tfm/public/newtx/zxlr-8r.tfm
INPUT c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/fonts/tfm/public/newtx/zxlri-8r.tfm
INPUT c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/fonts/tfm/public/newtx/rntxmi.tfm
INPUT c:/Users/yongh/papers/conference_usenix2019_emulware/malmax_ccs19.bbl
INPUT c:/Users/yongh/papers/conference_usenix2019_emulware/malmax_ccs19.bbl
INPUT c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/fonts/vf/public/libertine/LinLibertineT-tlf-ot1.vf
INPUT c:/texlive/2019/texmf-dist/fonts/tfm/public/libertine/LinLibertineT-tlf-ot1--base.tfm
INPUT c:/Users/yongh/papers/conference_usenix2019_emulware/sections/appendix.tex
......
No preview for this file type
......@@ -105,12 +105,8 @@ As for false positives, we manually verified all false positive cases in Fig.~\r
To understand the importance of maliciousness score and the consequences of changing the scores,
we performed a sensitivity analysis by setting the maliciousness score of all explicitly sandboxed functions to 1, regardless of their input arguments. The sensitivity analysis shows that without this fine-grained scoring, we miss an additional 176 detected malware samples (4.5\% additional false negatives) as well as incorrectly flag 73 benign files (1.8\% additional false positives).
\begin{newtext}
\noindent
\textbf{Additional Detected Malware Samples by \sysname.}
While \toolname identified additional 1,485 malware samples in dataset A that are not detected by any existing malware detectors, it does not necessarily mean that they are previously unknown malware.
\end{newtext}
\corr{}{\textbf{Newly Identified Malware Samples by \sysname.}
While \toolname identified additional 1,485 malware samples in Dataset A that are not detected by the 70 antivirus scanners in VirusTotal, it may not mean that they are previously unknown malware.
}
%\subsubsection{Analysis of Real-world Malware Samples}
We present investigation of two malware samples that are not detected by \corr{any of the previously existing tools}{VirusTotal}. %We investigated these samples in detail to show how \sysname uncovers hidden malicious behaviors.
\noindent
{\bf Sample I: Delivering Payload through Benign Website. }
Fig.~\ref{fig:malware_sample1}-(a) shows the malware in its original form (i.e., obfuscated). Due to the obfuscation, most AVs in VT fail to detect it. We leverage \sysname to deobfuscate the malware and the result is shown in Fig.~\ref{fig:malware_sample1}-(b). We use VT to scan the deobfuscated code and 2 AVs detect it as malware, indicating the obfuscation of the sample successfully avoids detection.
Note that the deobfuscated malware is detected by only 2 AVs, suggesting the {\it limitation of signature-based tools}.
\begin{figure}[htp]
\vspace{-1.5em}
\caption{Obfuscated Evasive Malware Sample I.}
......@@ -7,16 +17,8 @@
\vspace{-0.5em}
\includegraphics[width=0.8\columnwidth]{fig/case_malware1.pdf}
\vspace{-1em}
\end{figure}
%\subsubsection{Analysis of Real-world Malware Samples}
We present investigation of two malware samples that are not detected by any of the previously existing tools. %We investigated these samples in detail to show how \sysname uncovers hidden malicious behaviors.
\end{figure}
\noindent
{\bf Sample I: Delivering Payload through Benign Website. }
Fig.~\ref{fig:malware_sample1}-(a) shows the malware in its original form (i.e., obfuscated). Due to the obfuscation, most AVs in VT fail to detect it. We leverage \sysname to deobfuscate the malware and the result is shown in Fig.~\ref{fig:malware_sample1}-(b). We use VT to scan the deobfuscated code and 2 AVs detect it as malware, indicating the obfuscation of the sample successfully avoids detection.
Note that the deobfuscated malware is detected by only 2 AVs, suggesting the {\it limitation of signature-based tools}.
The code has several evasive tricks. First, it calculates an MD5 value from an external input (e.g., {\tt \$\_POST}) and only when it matches with the hardcoded MD5 value does decode and execute remote code provided by an attacker \blkcc{1}.
Moreover, Lines 5-15 show that it checks several environment variables (e.g., {\tt \$\_REQUEST}) to identify the right victim \blkcc{2}.
......
......@@ -14,12 +14,8 @@ We evaluated the performance and effectiveness of \sysname using a large set of
\noindent
{\bf Real-world Website Deployments (Dataset A).} To understand \sysname's impact in practice, we ran \toolname on a large dataset of \textbf{1 TB} of files (consisting of 87 real world websites deployed in the wild).
The dataset is provided by a commercial web hosting company that maintains nightly backups of over 400,000 websites. For each backup, Linux Malware Detector~\cite{maldet} is used to scan every file in the backup.
%If any files in a backup is flagged as malware, the entire backup is added to the dataset.
Any website included in our dataset had at least one file flagged as malware.
Hence, the dataset includes both benign and malicious PHP files, some of which are flagged by Linux Malware Detector.
Note that the signature-based tools may have false positives and negatives. We aim to leverage \toolname to
%{discover undetected malware as well as to find out false positive cases}
{\color{red} improve accuracy of malware detection}. More details on the dataset can be found in Section~\ref{section:scanning_real_websites}.
\corr{Any website included in our dataset had at least one file flagged as malware. Hence, the dataset includes both benign and malicious PHP files, some of which are flagged by Linux Malware Detector. Note that the signature-based tools may have false positives and negatives. We aim to leverage \toolname to
discover undetected malware as well as to find out false positive cases. More details on the dataset can be found in Section~\ref{section:scanning_real_websites}.}{If any file in a website is flagged as malware, the entire website (i.e., all files of that website) are included in the dataset. If no file in the website is flagged as malware, the website's files are not included in the dataset. Because Linux Malware detector has both false positives and false negatives, flagged files may not be malicious and unflagged files may be malicious. Consequently, the dataset includes both potentially benign and malicious files, at least one of which was flagged as malware by Linux Malware Detector. Section~\ref{section:scanning_real_websites} provides more details regarding the diversity of the dataset.}
\noindent
{\bf Real-world and Synthesized Malware Samples (Dataset B).}
......@@ -103,8 +99,8 @@ they often caused many false positives. % (e.g., both services marked four out o
%Although the first case study provides good insights about \sysname's capabilities and limitations,
We used a large corpus of 87 real-world infected websites consisting of 3,225,403 files (approximately 1 TB) to demonstrate the effectiveness of \sysname.
The dataset includes various malware in the wild
%including previously undetected samples
The dataset includes various malware in the wild
\corr{including previously undetected samples}{}
which show how \sysname can perform against realistic advanced malware.
The websites were collected for analysis because at least one of the files in each website is marked as malicious by Linux Malware Detector (maldet).
Details on file extension distribution in the dataset can be found in Appendix~\ref{appendix:fileexts}.
......@@ -326,7 +322,7 @@ For the sake of our analysis, which aims to cover as many execution paths as pos
\noindent
{\bf Results.}
%Table~\ref{table:false-positives} shows the results.
{\color{red} \toolname does not flag any files as malware when scanning these benign applications, meaning that it has no false positives.}
\toolname does not flag any files as malware when scanning these benign applications, meaning that it has no false positives.
BackdoorMan and PHP Malware Detector emit hundreds of {\it false warnings (categorized as suspicious)} when scanning these applications.
Specifically, BackdoorMan generates 393, 514, 263, and 688 warnings and PHP Malware Detector emits 251, 1141, 36, and 36 warnings for Wordpress, Joomla, phpMyAdmin, and CakePHP respectively.
Note that those warnings are false positives as those applications are all benign.
......
\vspace{-2em}
%\vspace{-2em}
\section{Conclusion}
\label{section:summary}
......
Supports Markdown
0% or .
You are about to add 0 people to the discussion. Proceed with caution.
Finish editing this message first!
Please register or to comment